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Is poor-water intoxication ,cells swell (Viswanath 2007 Author ‘s Name 9 3 ) Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of acid-base balance An important property of blood is its degree of acidity or alkalinity Body acidity increases when the level of acidic compounds in the body rises (through increased intake or production , or decreased elimination or when the level of basic (alkaline ) compounds in the body falls (through decreased intake or production , or increased elimination

The body ‘s balance between acidity and alkalinity is referred to as acid-base balance (Acid-Base Balance 2003 The blood ‘s acid-base balance is precisely controlled , because even a minor deviation from the normal range can severely affect many organs The body uses different mechanisms to control the blood ‘s acid-base balance (Acid-Base Balance 2003 One mechanism the body uses to control blood pH involves the release of carbon dioxide from the lungs

Third is carbon dioxide as bicarbonate , which accounts for most of the CO2 carried by the blood (Tortora 2006 Carbon dioxide is able to combine with water to form carbonic acid This reaction occurs spontaneously in the plasma at a slow rate but occurs much more rapidly within the red blood cells due to the catalytic action of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase

C , its water vapor pressure is also constant at 47mmHg (Tortora 2006 Water vapor , like the other constituent gases , contributes a partial pressure to the pressure is constant (depending only on the Author ‘s Name 2 height of the air mass , the water vapor dilutes the contribution of other gases to the As a result of gas exchange in the alveoli , the Po2 of the alveolar air is further diminished to about 105 mmHg (Tortora 2006 3 ) Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin Most of the oxygen in the blood is contained within the red blood cells , where it is chemically bonded to hemoglobin

The most important pH buffer system in the blood involves carbonic acid (a weak acid formed from the carbon dioxide dissolved in blood ) and bicarbonate ions (Acid-Base Balance 2003 Author ‘s Name 11 Works Cited Acid-Base Balance ‘ 2003

Kidney tubule secretion plays a crucial role in maintaining the body ‘s acid-base balance , another example of an important body function that the kidney participates in (Lujan and White 2006 Author ‘s Name 5 2 ) Describe the normal characteristics , composition , and solute concentrations of a representative urine sample Volume is one of the physical characteristics of urine

It stimulates sweat glands to reduce perspiration and high levels of Author ‘s Name 8 ADH cause vasoconstriction which increases blood pressure (Shardo 2006 CHAPTER 27 1 ) Compare the composition of intracellular and extracellular fluids The fluid which surrounds the cells of the body

Since there are about 280 million hemoglobin molecules per red blood cell , each red blood cell can carry over a billion molecules of oxygen (Tortora 2006 Normal heme contains iron in the reduced form

In this respect , secretion is reabsorption in reverse Whereas reabsorption moves substances out of the tubules and into the blood , secretion moves substances out of the blood and into the tubules where they mix with the water and other wastes and are converted into urine

The concept that the body ‘s cells are protected from a continuously changing and often hostile external environment by their own internal environment , a fluid of constant volume and composition was introduced by French physiologist , Claude Bernard (1813-78 Although the basic concept still holds , extracellular fluid is no longer considered to be constant , but to vary within very narrow limits (Extracellular Fluid 2007 Intracellular fluid is the fluid contained within cells

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