sex and gender

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Paper Topic: sex and gender SEX AND GENDER Sex refers to the biological distinction between a male and a female The term thus includes the capability of each sex to reproduce based on its specific meiotic processes , such as egg cells of a female undergoing oogenesis and the sperm cells of a male undergoing spermatogenesis (Haag , 2007

The brain structure of males and females are also different , which in turn influences the behavior of males and females The field of sociology has also shaped the concepts of sex and gender wherein sexologists have described a gender role as the expression of an individual ‘s view of himself , regardless of the individual ‘s biological characteristics

On the hand , gender pertains to the difference between a man and a woman , as defined by an individual ‘s perception of himself or herself or by an individual ‘s behavior The field of biology has explained the sex and gender identities based on the chromosomal sex constitution of an individual , wherein a karyotype of 46 ,XX designates a female and 46 ,XY designates a male Other genders may also be described through the existence of chromosomal abnormalities such as 47 ,XXY for Klinefelter ‘s syndrome and and 45 ,X for Turner ‘s syndrome

Thus the concept of gender in sociology does not conform to the archetypal notion of male or female because a biologically male individual may behave like a female hence this individual considers himself as female

The gender roles in the Western world has also changed because there are certain males who prefer to serve the role of homemaker and the females play the role of wage-earner in the family

Their biological sexes are not affected , but their gender roles as head of the household and homemaker have been interchanged Reference Haag ES (2007 : Why two sexes

In addition , the presence of primary sexual characteristics such as testicles and ovaries differentiates males from females

There are also secondary sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females such as the presence of breasts

Sex determination in multicellular organisms and protistan mating types

Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 18 :348-9

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